Enhanced CS2 model for large strain consolidation

Patrick J. Fox, Hefu Pu

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

52 Scopus citations


Since original publication in 1997, the CS2 numerical model has been widely used for consolidation analysis and has formed the basis for several more advanced consolidation models. In this paper, an enhanced version of the CS2 model is presented along with simulations to illustrate its new capabilities. The algorithm includes features of the original model with the addition of time-dependent loading, an external hydraulic gradient, and unload/reload effects. Verification checks show excellent agreement with analytical solutions for time-dependent loading under small strain conditions. A variety of numerical examples indicates that the new capabilities describe important considerations for consolidation analysis. The simulations also indicate that failure to correctly account for compressibility and hydraulic conductivity constitutive relationships and self-weight of the soil in particular can lead to significant errors.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)574-583
Number of pages10
JournalInternational Journal of Geomechanics
Issue number5
StatePublished - 2012

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Soil Science


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