EOTD: An Efficient Online Tucker Decomposition for Higher Order Tensors

Houping Xiao, Fei Wang, Fenglong Ma, Jing Gao

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contribution

6 Scopus citations


A tensor (i.e., an N-mode array) is a natural representation for multidimensional data. Tucker Decomposition (TD) is one of the most popular methods, and a series of batch TD algorithms have been extensively studied and widely applied in signal/image processing, bioinformatics, etc. However, in many applications, the large-scale tensor is dynamically evolving at all modes, which poses significant challenges for existing approaches to track the TD for such dynamic tensors. In this paper, we propose an efficient Online Tucker Decomposition (eOTD) approach to track the TD of dynamic tensors with an arbitrary number of modes. We first propose corollaries on the multiplication of block tensor matrix. Based on this corollary, eOTD allows us 1) to update the projection matrices using those projection matrices from the previous timestamp and the auxiliary matrices from the current timestamp, and 2) to update the core tensor by a sum of tensors that are obtained by multiplying smaller tensors with matrices. The auxiliary matrices are obtained by solving a series of least square regression tasks, not by performing Singular Value Decompositions (SVD). This overcomes the bottleneck in computation and storage caused by computing SVDs on largescale data. A Modified Gram-Schmidt (MGS) process is further applied to orthonormalize the projection matrices. Theoretically, the output of the eOTD framework is guaranteed to be lowrank. We further prove that the MGS process will not increase Tucker decomposition error. Empirically, we demonstrate that the proposed eOTD achieves comparable accuracy with a significant speedup on both synthetic and real data, where the speedup can be more than 1,500 times on large-scale data.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Title of host publication2018 IEEE International Conference on Data Mining, ICDM 2018
PublisherInstitute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc.
Number of pages6
ISBN (Electronic)9781538691588
StatePublished - Dec 27 2018
Event18th IEEE International Conference on Data Mining, ICDM 2018 - Singapore, Singapore
Duration: Nov 17 2018Nov 20 2018

Publication series

NameProceedings - IEEE International Conference on Data Mining, ICDM
ISSN (Print)1550-4786


Conference18th IEEE International Conference on Data Mining, ICDM 2018

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • General Engineering


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