We report a unique case of a human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected man with Epstein-Barré virus (EBV) negative diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) that responded solely to highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). Our patient presented with a retroperitoneal mass, high viral load, CD4 288 and began therapy with HAART with marked improvement of symptoms. The patient declined chemotherapy since he felt better after HAART, and rescanning at that time demonstrated marked improvement of the lymphoma on HAART alone. Viral load became undetectable, CD4 450 by 8 weeks. By 6 months, the patient had a complete remission verified by positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) and has remained in remission to date on HAART alone. We postulate that HIV infection directly precipitated the lymphoma.
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