The concentrations listed in the "Effluent Analysis" section were incorrectly given with incorrect units, mg L-1. The correct units are ng L-1. The revised paragraph with the corrected units is given here. Effluent Analysis Measured concentrations in the effluent varied for each estrogen. For 17b-estradiol, the average concentration in the effluent was 8.43 ± 3.55 ng L-1. The average estrone concentration was 17.0 ± 8.37 ng L-1, and the average 17a-ethynylestradiol concentration was 6.76 ± 4.49 ng L-1. For all three estrogens, measured concentrations varied between sprinkler heads. The estrogen concentrations measured in the cropped sprinkler heads ranged from 7.78 to 28.71 ng L-1, and the concentrations measured in the forested sprinkler heads ranged from below detection limit to 11.01 ng L-1. These data confirm that even after primary and secondary treatment, estrogens are present in the effluent at concentrations that can affect organisms. Without land application, effluent would be directly discharged into streams. These data highlight one possible benefit of land-based wastewater application: it can be used as a form of hormone removal.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Environmental Engineering
- Water Science and Technology
- Waste Management and Disposal
- Management, Monitoring, Policy and Law