Robert E. Cilley, Peter W. Dillon

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapter


Endoscopists in the nineteenth century used open, rigid tubes to visualize the upper gastrointestinal tract. The characteristics of rigid endoscopies were improved by the addition of conventional lenses that provided magnification and some increase in the viewing angle. When miniaturized for pediatric applications, the narrow viewing angle and the poor light transmission inherent in these devices limited their usefulness. A major advance in the field of endoscopy was the development of the rod-lens telescope, which first became available in 1966. Flexible fiberoptic endoscopes were first developed in 1958. Technical improvements combined with the development of specialized equipment have expanded the diagnostic and therapeutic potential of this technique. Flexible endoscopes for upper gastrointestinal endoscopy are now available in small sizes ideally suited to pediatric applications.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Title of host publicationOperative Pediatric Surgery
Subtitle of host publicationSeventh edition
PublisherCRC Press
Number of pages7
ISBN (Electronic)9781444165012
StatePublished - Jan 1 2013

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • General Medicine


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