BACKGROUND: Acute respiratory failure (ARF) remains the most frequent reason for ICU admission in patients who are immunocompromised. This study reports etiologies and outcomes of ARF in subjects with solid tumors. METHODS: This study was a post hoc analysis of the EFRAIM study, a prospective multinational cohort study that included 1611 subjects who were immunocompromised and with ARF admitted to the ICU. Subjects with solid tumors admitted to the ICU with ARF were included in the analysis. RESULTS: Among the subjects from the EFRAIM cohort, 529 subjects with solid tumors (32.8%) were included in the analysis. At ICU admission, the median (interquartile range) Sequential Organ Failure Assessment score was 5 (3-9). The types of solid tumor were mostly lung cancer (n = 111, 21%), breast cancer (n = 52, 9.8%), and digestive cancer (n = 47, 8.9%). A majority, 379 subjects (71.6%) were full code at ICU admission. The ARF was caused by bacterial or viral infection (n = 220, 41.6%), extrapulmonary sepsis (n = 62, 11.7%), or related to cancer or treatment toxicity (n = 83, 15.7%), or fungal infection (n = 23, 4.3%). For 63 subjects (11.9%), the ARF etiology remained unknown after an extensive diagnostic workup. The hospital mortality rate was 45.7% (n = 232/508). Hospital mortality was independently associated with chronic cardiac failure (odds ratio 1.78, 95% CI 1.09-2.92; P = .02), lung cancer (odds ratio 2.50, 95% CI 1.51-4.19; P < .001), day 1 Sequential Organ Failure Assessment score (odds ratio 1.97, 95% CI 1.32-2.96; P < .001). ARF etiologies other than infectious, related to cancer, or treatment toxicity were associated with better outcomes (odds ratio 0.32, 95% CI 0.16-0.61; P < .001). CONCLUSIONS: Infectious diseases remained the most frequent cause of ARF in subjects with solid tumors admitted to the ICU. Hospital mortality was related to severity at ICU admission, previous comorbidities, and ARF etiologies related to non-malignant causes or pulmonary embolism. Lung tumor was also independently associated with higher mortality.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Pulmonary and Respiratory Medicine
- Critical Care and Intensive Care Medicine