Evaluation and management of children and adolescents with gender identification and transgender disorders

Peter A. Lee, Christopher P. Houk

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

6 Scopus citations


Purpose of Review: Gender identity development is poorly understood but impacted by central nervous system (CNS) factors, genes, gonadal hormones and receptors, genitalia, and social/environmental factors. Gender identity disorder (GID) is the diagnostic term to describe persons discontent with the sex they were assigned at birth and/or the gender roles associated with that sex. It is crucial that the diagnosis be verified as persistent, since gender confusion among those young persists among only a portion. Recent Findings: Recent publications do not yet provide an overall perspective but involve observations regarding outcome information, unusual variables, incidence of cross-gender behavior, and CNS differences related to GID and bi-gender descriptions. Approaches to therapy for GID and task force guidelines are noted. Summary: Although the concept of gender identity is a relatively new paradigm and remains an area of active and exciting investigation, findings reported here provide items of information for understanding and treatment of GIDs and illustrate the need for further research.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)521-527
Number of pages7
JournalCurrent opinion in pediatrics
Issue number4
StatePublished - Aug 2013

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Pediatrics, Perinatology, and Child Health


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