Evaluation of Liquefaction Ejecta Case Histories in Christchurch

Zorana Mijic, Jonathan D. Bray, Sjoerd van Ballegooy

Research output: Contribution to journalConference articlepeer-review


Liquefaction ejecta were a key mechanism of liquefaction-induced land damage and residential house damage during the 2010-2011 Canterbury earthquake sequence. To gain insight, 244 well-documented liquefaction ejecta case histories of ejecta occurrence, its quantity, and its effects on infrastructure were developed. The authors take advantage of a comprehensive dataset of thousands of CPTs and boreholes, LiDAR surveys, aerial photographs, ground surveys, and liquefaction land damage documentation from insurance claims. The ejecta database includes 61 sites that underwent four major earthquakes that produced varying degrees of liquefaction-induced land damage ranging from no ejecta to extreme ejecta. Liquefaction ejecta coverage and amounts for each of the four primary earthquakes of the Canterbury sequence were extracted using both LiDAR-based and photographs-based approaches because direct measurements of the ejecta-induced settlement were not available. The ground conditions and seismic demand leading to the differing quantities of ejecta-induced settlement during the Canterbury earthquakes were characterized. The database will hopefully lead to the development of methods that estimate the likelihood of liquefaction ejecta and the amount of ejecta-induced ground settlement at a site.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)520-530
Number of pages11
JournalGeotechnical Special Publication
Issue numberGSP 334
StatePublished - 2022
Event2022 GeoCongress: State of the Art and Practice in Geotechnical Engineering - Geophysical and Earthquake Engineering and Soil Dynamics - Charlotte, United States
Duration: Mar 20 2022Mar 23 2022

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Civil and Structural Engineering
  • Architecture
  • Building and Construction
  • Geotechnical Engineering and Engineering Geology


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