Background: Mitigation strategies were implemented during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic that slowed the spread of this virus and other respiratory viruses. The objective of this study is to assess the impact of COVID-19 mitigation strategies on the medical services that children less than 1 year of age with acute bronchiolitis required (emergency department services, hospitalization, critical care services, and mechanical ventilation). Methods: This was a retrospective observational cohort study utilizing TriNetX ® electronic health record (EHR) data. We included subjects less than 1 year of age with a diagnosis of acute bronchiolitis. After the query, the study population was divided into two groups [pre-COVID-19 (March 1st, 2019 until February 29th, 2020) and COVID-19 (March 1st, 2020 until February 1th, 2021)]. We analyzed the following data: age, sex, race, diagnostic codes, common terminology procedures (CPT), and antimicrobials administered. Results: A total of 5063 subjects (n,%) were included [4378 (86.5%) pre-COVID-19 and 685 (13.5%) during the COVID-19 pandemic]. More subjects were diagnosed with acute bronchiolitis in the pre-COVID time frame (4378, 1.8% of all hospitalizations) when compared to the COVID-19 pandemic time frame (685, 0.5%). When diagnosed with acute bronchiolitis, the frequency of emergency department services, critical care services, hospitalization, and mechanical ventilationwere similar between the two cohorts. Conclusions: During the COVID-19 pandemic, less infants were diagnosed with acute bronchiolitis but the frequency of emergency department services, hospitalization, and mechanical ventilation, reportedly required was similar. Longer-term studies are needed to evaluate the benefits of COVID-19 mitigation strategies on common viruses that require critical care.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number100909
JournalRespiratory Medicine and Research
StatePublished - May 2022

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Pulmonary and Respiratory Medicine


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