Evidence-Based Clinical Practice Guidelines for Extramammary Paget Disease

Nour Kibbi, Joshua L. Owen, Brandon Worley, Jake X. Wang, Vishnu Harikumar, Malia B. Downing, Sumaira Z. Aasi, Phyu P. Aung, Christopher A. Barker, Diana Bolotin, Jeremy S. Bordeaux, Todd V. Cartee, Sunandana Chandra, Nancy L. Cho, Jennifer N. Choi, Kee Yang Chung, William A. Cliby, Oliver Dorigo, Daniel B. Eisen, Yasuhiro FujisawaNicholas Golda, Thorvardur R. Halfdanarson, Christos Iavazzo, Shang I.Brian Jiang, Jean Kanitakis, Ashraf Khan, John Y.S. Kim, Timothy M. Kuzel, Naomi Lawrence, Mario M. Leitao, Allan B. Maclean, Ian A. Maher, Bharat B. Mittal, Kishwer S. Nehal, David M. Ozog, Curtis A. Pettaway, Jeffrey S. Ross, Anthony M. Rossi, Sabah Servaes, Michael J. Solomon, Valencia D. Thomas, Maria Tolia, Bryan B. Voelzke, Abigail Waldman, Michael K. Wong, Youwen Zhou, Nobuo Arai, Alexandria Brackett, Sarah A. Ibrahim, Bianca Y. Kang, Emily Poon, Murad Alam

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

50 Scopus citations


Importance: Extramammary Paget disease (EMPD) is a frequently recurring malignant neoplasm with metastatic potential that presents in older adults on the genital, perianal, and axillary skin. Extramammary Paget disease can precede or occur along with internal malignant neoplasms. Objective: To develop recommendations for the care of adults with EMPD. Evidence Review: A systematic review of the literature on EMPD from January 1990 to September 18, 2019, was conducted using MEDLINE, Embase, Web of Science Core Collection, and Cochrane Libraries. Analysis included 483 studies. A multidisciplinary expert panel evaluation of the findings led to the development of clinical care recommendations for EMPD. Findings: The key findings were as follows: (1) Multiple skin biopsies, including those of any nodular areas, are critical for diagnosis. (2) Malignant neoplasm screening appropriate for age and anatomical site should be performed at baseline to distinguish between primary and secondary EMPD. (3) Routine use of sentinel lymph node biopsy or lymph node dissection is not recommended. (4) For intraepidermal EMPD, surgical and nonsurgical treatments may be used depending on patient and tumor characteristics, although cure rates may be superior with surgical approaches. For invasive EMPD, surgical resection with curative intent is preferred. (5) Patients with unresectable intraepidermal EMPD or patients who are medically unable to undergo surgery may receive nonsurgical treatments, including radiotherapy, imiquimod, photodynamic therapy, carbon dioxide laser therapy, or other modalities. (6) Distant metastatic disease may be treated with chemotherapy or individualized targeted approaches. (7) Close follow-up to monitor for recurrence is recommended for at least the first 5 years. Conclusions and Relevance: Clinical practice guidelines for EMPD provide guidance regarding recommended diagnostic approaches, differentiation between invasive and noninvasive disease, and use of surgical vs nonsurgical treatments. Prospective registries may further improve our understanding of the natural history of the disease in primary vs secondary EMPD, clarify features of high-risk tumors, and identify superior management approaches..

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)618-628
Number of pages11
JournalJAMA Oncology
Issue number4
StatePublished - Apr 2022

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Oncology
  • Cancer Research


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