Evolution of the Microstructure of Laser Powder Bed Fusion Ti-6Al-4V During Post-Build Heat Treatment

D. W. Brown, V. Anghel, L. Balogh, B. Clausen, N. S. Johnson, R. M. Martinez, D. C. Pagan, G. Rafailov, L. Ravkov, M. Strantza, E. Zepeda-Alarcon

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

12 Scopus citations


The microstructure of additively manufactured Ti-6Al-4V (Ti64) produced by a laser powder bed fusion process was studied during post-build heat treatments between 1043 K (770 °C) and just above the β transus temperature 1241 K (1008 °C) in situ using high-energy X-ray diffraction. Parallel studies on traditionally manufactured wrought and annealed Ti64 were completed as a baseline comparison. The initial and final grain structures were characterized using electron backscatter diffraction. Likewise, the initial texture, dislocation density, and final texture were determined with X-ray diffraction. The evolution of the microstructure, including the phase evolution, internal stress, qualitative dislocation density, and vanadium distribution between the constituent phases were monitored with in situ X-ray diffraction. The as-built powder bed fusion material was single-phase hexagonal close packed (to the measurement resolution) with a fine acicular grain structure and exhibited a high dislocation density and intergranular residual stress. Recovery of the high dislocation density and annealing of the internal stress were observed to initiate concurrently at a relatively low temperature of 770 K (497 °C). Transformation to the β phase initiated at roughly 913 K (640 °C), after recovery had occurred. These results are meant to be used to design post-build heat treatments resulting in specified microstructures and properties.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)5165-5181
Number of pages17
JournalMetallurgical and Materials Transactions A: Physical Metallurgy and Materials Science
Issue number12
StatePublished - Dec 2021

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Condensed Matter Physics
  • Mechanics of Materials
  • Metals and Alloys


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