Exact ART: A complete implementation of an ART network

Maartje E.J. Raijmakers, Peter C.M. Molenaar

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

24 Scopus citations


In this article we introduce a continuous time implementation of adaptive resonance theory (ART). ART designed by Grossberg concerns neural networks that self-organize stable pattern recognition categories of arbitrary sequences of input patterns. In contrast to the current implementations of ART we introduce a complete implementation of an ART network, including all regulatory and logical functions, as a system of ordinary differential equations capable of stand-alone running in real time. This means that transient behavior is kept in tact. This implementation of ART is based on ART 2 and is called Exact ART. Exact ART includes an implementation of a gated dipole field and an implementation of the orienting sub-system. The most important features of Exact ART, which are the design principles of ART 2, are proven mathematically. Also simulation studies show that Exact ART self-organizes stable recognition codes that agree with the classification behavior of ART 2.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)649-669
Number of pages21
JournalNeural Networks
Issue number4
StatePublished - Jun 1997

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Cognitive Neuroscience
  • Artificial Intelligence


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