Examining OHV user displacement at the Oregon Dunes National Recreation Area and Sand Lake: A 10-year trend study

Candice J. Riley, Chad D. Pierskalla, Robert C. Burns, Kudzayi C. Maumbe, Alan R. Graefe, David A. Smaldone, Susan Williams

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

2 Scopus citations


The purpose of this research is to combine data from three cross-sectional surveys (2002, 2006, and 2011) to examine the possibility of two distinct OHV user displacement processes at Oregon Dunes National Recreation Area (ODNRA)/Sand Lake. We adopted a broader definition of displacement to better understand displacement of OHV visitors during periods of changing levels of management regimentation that ranged from low (Type 1 displacement) to high (Type 2 displacement). The study used a random sampling method and a total of 1773 exit interviews were completed. The data were analyzed using Analysis of Variance, Chi-Square tests, and Analysis of Moment of Structures. Results suggest a Type 2 displacement process in 2002 was followed by a Type 1 process in 2006 as a result of changing managerial and social conditions. Ultimately, these changes led to more highly satisfied visitors in 2011 that are recreating in a safer environment. Management implications Visitor displacement is not inherently bad when it is managed. As part of their current management plan, ODNRA/Sand Lake managers use the Recreation Opportunity Spectrum (a zoning tool) to define recreation opportunities for the area, and in a larger regional context, this can be used to minimize Type 1 displacement in some areas (higher levels of regimentation) and Type 2 in others (lower levels of regimentation). To be effective at ODNRA/Sand Lake, clearly stated management objectives are needed for each recreation opportunity zone.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)44-52
Number of pages9
JournalJournal of Outdoor Recreation and Tourism
StatePublished - Apr 9 2015

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Tourism, Leisure and Hospitality Management


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