Many students with emotional or behavioral disorders (EBD) display both learning and behavioral problems that make it difficult for teachers to provide effective instruction. In turn, a lack of exposure to effective instruction contributes to poor academic and behavioral outcomes. In this article, the authors argue that the interaction between the learning and behavior problems of students with EBD is complex and likely characterized by multiple influences, including classroom contextual factors. The authors detail (a) ways that teacher instructional behaviors and classroom contexts may contribute to the relationship between learning and behavior problems of students with EBD and (b) assessment procedures helpful for measuring classroom contextual variables. Implications for future research are discussed, including using data gleaned from applied research to inform future randomized clinical trials examining classroom-based interventions for students with EBD.
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