Experimental and finite element simulation study of the adiabatic shear band phenomenon in cold heading process

A. Sabih, J. A. Nemes

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7 Scopus citations


This paper presents the outcomes of a comprehensive experimental, metallurgical and finite element (FE) simulation study to characterize the development of adiabatic shear band (ASB) phenomenon in steel cold heading (CH) process. The main objective of this work is to investigate the complex interplay of different process and material parameters on the ASB development stages inside the cold headed parts. In this work, the drop weight compression test (DWCT) was selected to simulate the CH process impact loads on specimens machined from 1038 steel and 1018 steel. Series of DWCTs were performed under different impact loading conditions. The goal of these tests is to achieve different deformation levels and introduce ASBs at different stages. To reach a full understanding of this complex phenomenon, the FE simulation analysis was used to support the metallurgical examination of the DWCT specimens. The FE analysis provided important details about the changes of different material and process parameters at the critical zones inside the ASBs. This study confirmed that the ASB is mainly a thermo-mechanically controlled phenomenon. The ASBs develop in three stages: homogeneous plastic strain, inhomogeneous plastic strain, and strain localization. The ASB development stage depends mainly on the status of the competition between the work hardening and the thermal and geometrical softening mechanisms inside the bands. The domination of the softening mechanisms at advanced levels of deformation triggers a self-catalytic strain localization and material strength degradation process that leads to failure inside the band. In general, the metallurgical and finite element analysis investigation revealed that under impact loads, three ASBs can develop simultaneously inside the cold headed parts; lower, upper and central ASBs. As the deformation continues; the development of the lower and upper bands slows down and contributes in the rapid development of the adjacent central ASB. This study confirmed that the ASB has a canonical structure which leads to an ASB that can experience different development stages along the same band simultaneously. This study proved that the shape and the type of ASBs in cold headed parts depend highly on material's properties. The metallurgical and finite element analysis revealed that the higher the strength of the tested steel, the easier to form a narrow ASB that reaches the localization stage at low deformation levels. In contrast, ductile steels experience wider ASBs when subjected to the same deformation levels. These bands require higher levels of deformation to reach the localization stage in comparison to higher strength steels.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1089-1105
Number of pages17
JournalJournal of Materials Processing Technology
Issue number5
StatePublished - May 1 2012

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Ceramics and Composites
  • Computer Science Applications
  • Metals and Alloys
  • Industrial and Manufacturing Engineering


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