Exploring the Concept of Iso-perceptual Manifold (IPM): A Study of Finger Force-Matching Tasks

Cristian Cuadra, Mark L. Latash

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

16 Scopus citations


We used force-matching tasks between the two hands to test predictions of the recently introduced scheme of perception based on the concept of iso-perceptual manifold (IPM) in the combined afferent–efferent space of neural signals. The main hypothesis was that accuracy and variability of individual finger force matching would be worse in a four-finger task compared to one-finger tasks. The subjects produced accurate force levels under visual feedback by pressing with either all four fingers or by one of the fingers of a hand (task-hand). They tried to match the total four-finger force or individual finger forces by pressing with the other hand (match-hand, no visual feedback). The match-hand consistently overshot the task-hand force during single-finger matching episodes. It showed higher inter-trial force variability during single-finger matching when the task-hand performed the four-finger task compared to trials when the task-hand performed single-finger tasks. These findings confirm our main hypothesis by showing that perception of individual finger forces can vary in multi-finger tasks within a space (IPM) corresponding to veridical perception of total force. Matching hypothetical commands to fingers, rather than finger forces, could be responsible for the consistent force overshoots. Indices of inter-trial variance affecting and unaffecting total force showed strong stabilization of total force in the task-hand but not in the match-hand in support of an earlier hypothesis on the importance of visual feedback for force stabilization. No differences were seen between the right and left hands suggesting that the dynamic dominance hypothesis may not be generalizable to perceptual phenomena.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)130-141
Number of pages12
StatePublished - Mar 1 2019

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • General Neuroscience


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