External fixation: Principles and applications

Jesse E. Bible, Hassan R. Mir

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

58 Scopus citations


The modularity and ease of application of modern external fixation has expanded its potential use in the management of fractures and other musculoskeletal conditions. In fracture care, it can be used for provisional and definitive fixation. Short-term provisional applications include "damage control" and periarticular fracture fixation. The risk:benefit ratio of added stability needs to be assessed with each fixator. Soft-tissue management is critical during pin insertion to lessen the risk of loosening and infection. Although provisional fixation is safe for early conversion to definitive fixation, several factors affect the timing of definitive surgery, including the initial injury, external fixator stability, infection, and the physiologic state of the patient.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)683-690
Number of pages8
JournalJournal of the American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons
Issue number11
StatePublished - Nov 1 2015

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Surgery
  • Orthopedics and Sports Medicine


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