Eyelid Drive System: An Assistive Technology Employing Inductive Sensing of Eyelid Movement

Philip Graybill, Mehdi Kiani

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

7 Scopus citations


This paper presents the design, development, and validation of the eyelid drive system (EDS), an assistive technology comprising a specialized pair of glasses and millimeter-sized passive resonators, attached to the user's eyelids, that transduce eyelid movement (blinking and winking) through inductive sensing. The theory of operation and design optimization with simulations are presented. A proof-of-concept prototype EDS was constructed using a pair of nonprescription glasses and commercial-off-the-shelf components. In benchtop tests with model eyelids, the EDS demonstrated basic functionality. Initial trials were performed involving six human subjects interacting with custom designed graphical user interfaces on a computer. A group mean accuracy of 96.3% was achieved using a set of four different commands at a response rate of 3 s. A mean information transfer rate (ITR) of 56.1 b/min over all subjects was achieved with a set of six different commands at a response rate of 1.5 s. This proof-of-concept device consumes 51.6 mW of power. The EDS compares favorably with related eye-interfacing assistive technologies and provides a unique combination of advantages, including high accuracy and ITR, wearability, insensitivity to lighting and noise conditions, obviation of facial electrodes, and the use of nonexaggerated gestures.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number8540903
Pages (from-to)203-213
Number of pages11
JournalIEEE transactions on biomedical circuits and systems
Issue number1
StatePublished - Feb 2019

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Biomedical Engineering
  • Electrical and Electronic Engineering


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