Facial appearance, gender, and emotion expression

Ursula Hess, Reginald B. Adams, Robert E. Kleck

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

148 Scopus citations


Western gender stereotypes describe women as affiliative and more likely to show happiness and men as dominant and more likely to show anger. The authors assessed the hypothesis that the gender-stereotypic effects on perceptions of anger and happiness are partially mediated by facial appearance markers of dominance and affiliation by equating men's and women's faces for these cues. In 2 studies, women were rated as more angry and men as more happy - a reversal of the stereotype. Ratings of sadness, however, were not systematically affected. It is posited that markers of affiliation and dominance, themselves confounded with gender, interact with the expressive cues for anger and happiness to produce emotional perceptions that have been viewed as simple gender stereotypes.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)378-388
Number of pages11
Issue number4
StatePublished - Dec 2004

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Psychology(all)


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