Facial stereotypie movements and tardive dyskinesia in a mentally retarded population

R. L. Sprague, R. E.A. Van Emmerik, S. M. Slobounov, K. M. Newell

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

12 Scopus citations


The facial stereotypies of adults diagnosed as having mental retardation and tardive dyskinesia were examined through a kinematic analysis of video-taped lip and tongue motions. A control group of healthy adult subjects without mental retardation was also examined in the production of preferred rates of lip and tongue oscillatory motions to provide a basis to assess the degree of movement variability in the stereotypies. The inter- and intraindividual variability of the movement form characteristics of the lip and tongue stereotypic motions was higher in the subjects with mental retardation. Results suggest that the low variability of discrete properties of movement kinematics may not be a defining feature of stereotypies. The concept of invariance in stereotypies may relate only to the topological kinematic properties of the movement sequence that provide the basis to infer that the same stereotypic movement sequence was reproduced from observation to observation.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)345-358
Number of pages14
JournalAmerican Journal on Mental Retardation
Issue number4
StatePublished - Jan 1996

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Education
  • Rehabilitation
  • Developmental and Educational Psychology
  • General Health Professions


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