“Fact-checking” fact checkers: A data-driven approach

Sian Lee, Aiping Xiong, Haeseung Seo, Dongwon Lee

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

1 Scopus citations


This study examined four fact checkers (Snopes, PolitiFact, Logically, and the Australian Associated Press FactCheck) using a data-driven approach. First, we scraped 22,349 fact-checking articles from Snopes and PolitiFact and compared their results and agreement on verdicts. Generally, the two fact checkers agreed with each other, with only one conflicting verdict among 749 matching claims after adjusting minor rating differences. Next, we assessed 1,820 fact-checking articles from Logically and the Australian Associated Press FactCheck and highlighted the differences in their fact-checking behaviors. Major events like the COVID-19 pandemic and the presidential election drove increased the frequency of fact-checking, with notable variations in ratings and authors across fact checkers.

Original languageEnglish (US)
JournalHarvard Kennedy School Misinformation Review
Issue number5
StatePublished - 2023

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Social Sciences (miscellaneous)

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