Factor analysis and psychometric evaluation of the mathematical modeling attitude scale for teachers of mathematics

Reuben S. Asempapa, Gordon P. Brooks

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

7 Scopus citations


The effective teaching and learning of mathematics through mathematical modeling and connecting mathematics to the real world has gained rapid growth at various educational levels all over the world. The growth in modeling practices in the United States of America (US) and the international community is the result of the development and implementation of new mathematics standards and curricula across the world. In this article, we report on the development and use of a quantitative instrument aimed at assessing teachers of mathematics attitudes toward mathematical modeling practices. Based on the responses of 310 practicing teachers of mathematics from the US, the mathematical modeling attitude scale was evaluated using item analysis, exploratory factor analysis, confirmatory factor analysis, and other psychometric properties. The scale isolated four dimensions: constructivism, understanding, relevance and real-life, and motivation and interest. These 4 factors accounted for 59% of the variation in the 28-item measure. Cronbach’s alpha coefficient for the overall scale was.96, and that for the subscales was.93 for constructivism,.81 for understanding,.88 for relevance and real-life, and.89 for motivation and interest. The findings suggest a psychometrically useable, reliable, and valid scale for studying teacher’s attitudes toward mathematical modeling. We discuss the instrument’s merit for research and teaching, and implications for teacher education, professional development, and future research.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)131-161
Number of pages31
JournalJournal of Mathematics Teacher Education
Issue number2
StatePublished - Apr 2022

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Education
  • General Mathematics


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