Factorial Invariance and Latent Mean Stability of Performance Failure Appraisals

David E. Conroy, Jonathan N. Metzler, Scott M. Hofer

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

78 Scopus citations


Accumulating evidence points to the validity of fear of failure (FF) score interpretations for the Performance Failure Appraisal Inventory (PFAI); however, the temporal stability of scores has not been established previously. Female and male college students participating in exercise activity classes (N = 356) completed long- and short-form versions of the PFAI on 4 occasions over a 3-week period. An evaluation of the factor structure, latent mean stability, and individual differences in change of PFAI scores was performed using longitudinal factorial invariance (LFI) and latent growth curve (LGC) analyses. Evidence was obtained for LFI of all first-order factors on the long form and the general FF factor (long and short forms). Differential stability estimates for 6 time intervals ranging from 2 to 21 days exceeded conventional minimum values for all factors. A small decrease in latent mean scores due to a skills test and a possible habituation effect was observed after the first occasion for several factors.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)401-422
Number of pages22
JournalStructural Equation Modeling
Issue number3
StatePublished - 2003

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • General Decision Sciences
  • Modeling and Simulation
  • Sociology and Political Science
  • Economics, Econometrics and Finance(all)


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