Factorial invariance of career indecision dimensions across junior high and high school males and females

John E. Schulenberg, Kazuaki Shimizu, Fred W. Vondracek, Michelle Hostetler

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

36 Scopus citations


Confirmatory factor analytic strategies were utilized to test for factorial invariance of factors derived from the Career Decision Scale (CDS; Osipow, Carney, Winer, Yanico, & Koschier, 1976) across groups of adolescents. A four-factor model derived from a previous exploratory factor analysis of the present total sample (N = 698) was tested (via LISREL) on four grade level (junior high versus high school) by gender subgroups. It was found that a model depicting equivalent factor loadings and factor variances and covariances across all four groups provided the most acceptable fit to the data, indicating that factorial invariance was obtained across the four groups. In addition, it was found that these results held for two different loading patterns (one reflecting the complexity of the CDS items, and one reflecting a simple structure). Results are discussed in terms of both the continuities of career indecision dimensions across gender and grade levels during adolescence, as well as the equivalent measurement properties of the CDS.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)63-81
Number of pages19
JournalJournal of Vocational Behavior
Issue number1
StatePublished - Aug 1988

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Education
  • Applied Psychology
  • Organizational Behavior and Human Resource Management
  • Life-span and Life-course Studies


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