Factors associated with hospitalizations for co-occurring HIV and opioid-related diagnoses: Evidence from the national inpatient sample, 2009–2017

Nima Khodakarami, Marvellous A. Akinlotan, Timothy Callaghan, Kristin M. Primm, Meera Vadali, Jane Bolin, Alva O. Ferdinand

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


There has been evidence of rising HIV incidence attributable to opioid misuse within some areas of the U.S. The purpose of our study was to explore national trends in co-occurring HIV and opioid-related hospitalizations and to identify their risk factors. We used the 2009–2017 National Inpatient Sample to indicate hospitalizations with co-occurring HIV and opioid misuse diagnoses. We estimated the frequency of such hospitalizations per year. We fitted a linear regression to the annual HIV-opioid co-occurrences with year as a predictor. The resulting regression did not reveal any significant temporal changes. We used multivariable logistic regression to determine the adjusted odds (AOR) of hospitalization for co-occurring HIV and opioid-related diagnoses. The odds of hospitalization were lower for rural residents (AOR = 0.28; CI = 0.24–0.32) than urban. Females (AOR = 0.95, CI = 0.89–0.99) had lower odds of hospitalization than males. Patients identifying as White (AOR = 1.23, CI = 1.00–1.50) and Black (AOR = 1.27, CI = 1.02–1.57) had higher odds of hospitalization than other races. When compared to co-occuring hospitalizations in the Midwest, the odds were higher in the Northeast. (AOR = 2.56, CI = 2.07–3.17) Future research should explore the extent to which similar findings occur in the context of mortality and targeted interventions should intesify for subpopulations at highest risk of co-occuring HIV and opioid misuse diagnoses.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number102225
JournalPreventive Medicine Reports
StatePublished - Aug 2023

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Health Informatics
  • Public Health, Environmental and Occupational Health

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