This study uses 2 samples of adolescents and parents-the child-based Nonshared Environment in Adolescent Development project (NEAD; D. Reiss, J. M. Neiderhiser, E. Hetherington, & R. Plomin, 2000; N = 395 families) and the parent-based Twin and Offspring Study in Sweden (TOSS; N = 909 twin family pairs)-to investigate passive and evocative genotype-environment correlation (rGE) on fathering. Both samples used the same measures of positivity, negativity, control, and monitoring. A previous report examining mothering found evidence for passive rGE for positivity and monitoring, and evocative rGE for negativity and control, although both types of rGE were suggested in many cases. The current report focuses on fathering. Father reports of positivity and control are influenced by evocative rGE, whereas father reports of negativity and monitoring are influenced by both passive and evocative rGE. Adolescent reports of father's positivity and negativity were influenced by both evocative and passive rGE, and control and monitoring by passive rGE. The most notable difference in findings for fathers and mothers is for positivity and the presence of rGE for father's control and monitoring. These findings and their implications are discussed.
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