Feasibility and user acceptability of Breezing™, a mobile indirect calorimetry device, in pregnant women with overweight or obesity

Krista S. Leonard, Abigail M. Pauley, Penghong Guo, Emily E. Hohman, Daniel E. Rivera, Jennifer S. Savage, Danielle Symons Downs

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Emerging evidence has suggested that prenatal resting energy expenditure (REE) may be an important determinant of gestational weight gain. Advancements in technology such as the real-time, mobile indirect calorimetry device (Breezing™) have offered the novel opportunity to continuously assess prenatal REE while also potentially capturing fluctuations in REE. The purpose of this study was to examine feasibility and user acceptability of Breezing™ to assess weekly REE from 8 to 36 weeks gestation in pregnant women with overweight or obesity participating in the Healthy Mom Zone intervention study. Participants (N = 27) completed REE assessments once per week from 8 to 36 gestation using Breezing™. Feasibility of the device was calculated as compliance (# of weeks used/total # of weeks). User acceptability was measured by asking women to report on the device's enjoyability and perceived barriers. Median compliance was 68%. However, when weeks women experienced technical difficulties (11 of 702 total events) and the device was unavailable were removed (13 of 702 total events), median compliance increased to 71%. Over half (56%) of the women reported that the device was enjoyable or they had neutral feelings about it whereas the remaining 44% reported that it was not enjoyable. The most common barrier reported (44%) was the experience of technical issues. Study compliance data suggest the feasibility of using Breezing™ to assess prenatal REE is promising. However, acceptability data suggest future interventionists should develop transparent and informative protocols to address any barriers prior to implementing the device to increase use.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number100372
JournalSmart Health
StatePublished - Mar 2023

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Medicine (miscellaneous)
  • Information Systems
  • Health Informatics
  • Computer Science Applications
  • Health Information Management


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