Feasibility of a closed-loop controlled noninvasive ultrasonic glucose sensing and insulin delivery system

Eun Joo Park, Jacob Werner, Devina Jaiswal, Andrew G. Webb, Nadine Barrie Smith

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contribution

3 Scopus citations


Use of needles for multiple injections of drugs, such as insulin for diabetes, can be painful. As a result, prescribed drug noncompliance can results in severe medical complications. In previous studies, ultrasound mediated transdermal drug delivery has shown a promising potential as a method for noninvasive drug administration. Yet for prospective human application, a milestone to a practical clinical device of this research requires that the efficacy of the cymbal array be demonstrated on animals larger than rats and rabbits. Larger and possessing a blood volume similar to humans, pig is an appropriate animal model for further experimentation in evaluating the practicability of this ultrasound device. Six Yorkshire pigs (100 - 140 lbs) were divided into two groups. As the control (n = 3), the first group did not receive any ultrasound exposure with the insulin. The second group (n = 3) was treated with ultrasound and insulin at 20 kHz with an Isptp = 100 mW/cm2 at a 20% duty cycle for 60 minutes. With the pigs in lateral recumbency after anesthesia, the ultrasound transducer with insulin was placed on the axillary area of the pig. At the beginning and every 15 minutes up to 90 minutes, the blood glucose level was determined using a glucose monitoring system. To compare the results of individual animals, the change of blood glucose level was normalized to each animal's initial glucose value at the start of the experiment. Although each animal had a different initial glucose level, the mean and standard error for the six animals was 146 ± 13 mg/dl (Figure 1). For the control group, the blood glucose level increased to 31 ± 21 mg/dl compared to the initial baseline over the 90 minute experiment. However for the ultrasound with insulin treated group, the glucose level decreased to -72 ± 5 mg/dl at 60 minutes (p < 0.05) and continued to decreased to -91 ± 23 mg/dl in 90 minutes (p < 0.05). Results demonstrate a promising pre-clinical outcome for the low profile cymbal array to be used for ultrasound enhanced in vivo insulin transport using an animal with a similar size and weight to a human. The cymbal array has potential as a practical ultrasound system for noninvasive transdermal insulin delivery for diabetes management.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Title of host publication2009 IEEE International Ultrasonics Symposium and Short Courses, IUS 2009
PublisherInstitute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc.
Number of pages4
ISBN (Print)9781424443895
StatePublished - 2009
Event2009 IEEE International Ultrasonics Symposium, IUS 2009 - Rome, Italy
Duration: Sep 20 2009Sep 23 2009

Publication series

NameProceedings - IEEE Ultrasonics Symposium
ISSN (Print)1051-0117


Other2009 IEEE International Ultrasonics Symposium, IUS 2009

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Acoustics and Ultrasonics


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