Topological spintronics aims to exploit the spin-momentum locking in the helical surface states of topological insulators for spin-orbit torque devices. We address a fundamental question that still remains unresolved in this context: Does the topological surface state alone produce the largest values of spin-charge conversion efficiency or can the strongly spin-orbit coupled bulk states also contribute significantly? By studying the Fermi level dependence of spin pumping in topological insulator/ferrimagnetic insulator bilayers, we show that the spin Hall conductivity is constant when the Fermi level is tuned across the bulk band gap, consistent with a full bulk band calculation. The results suggest a different perspective, wherein "bulk-surface correspondence"allows spin-charge conversion to be simultaneously viewed either as coming from the full bulk band, or from spin-momentum locking of the surface state.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Physics and Astronomy(all)