Field quantification of ammonia emission following fertilization of golf course turfgrass in sub/urban areas

Nathaniel L. Leiby, Maxim J. Schlossberg

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

1 Scopus citations


Low cost and favorable handling characteristics make urea (46-0-0) a leading nitrogen source for frequent, foliar N fertilization of golf course putting greens in season. Yet few field investi-gations of resulting NH3 volatilization from putting greens have been directed. Meanwhile, NH3 emissions degrade air and surface water quality. Our objective was to quantify NH3 volatilization following practical, low-N rate, and foliar application of commercial urea-N fertilizers. Over the 2019 and 2020 growing seasons in University Park, PA, USA, an industrial vacuum pump, H3 BO3 scrubbing flasks, and sixteen dynamic flux chambers were employed in four unique experiments to measure NH3 volatilization from creeping bentgrass putting greens (Agrostis stolonifera L. ‘Penn G2’) in the 24 h period ensuing foliar application of urea based-N at a 7.32 or 9.76 kg/ha rate. Si-multaneous and replicated flux chamber trapping efficiency trials showing 35% mean NH3 recovery were used to adjust NH3 volatilization rates from treated plots. Under the duration and conditions described, 3.1 to 8.0% of conventional urea N volatilized from the putting greens as NH3. Conversely, 0.7 to 1.1% of methylol urea liquid fertilizer (60% short-chain methylene urea) or 0.7 to 2.2% of urea complimented with dicyandiamide (DCD) and N-(n-butyl) thiophosphoric triamide (NBPT) volatilized as NH3.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number11644
JournalApplied Sciences (Switzerland)
Issue number24
StatePublished - Dec 1 2021

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • General Materials Science
  • Instrumentation
  • General Engineering
  • Process Chemistry and Technology
  • Computer Science Applications
  • Fluid Flow and Transfer Processes


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