Flavor and mouthfeel of pseudo-cocoa liquor: Effects of polyphenols, fat content, and training method

Terianne Y. Hamada, Allison Brown, Helene Hopfer, Gregory R. Ziegler

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

8 Scopus citations


Current theories of astringency propose that this sensation is a result of delubrication in the oral cavity due to precipitation of salivary proteins. Astringency, commonly described as a drying or puckering sensation, is a main driving factor for rejection of certain foods. Previous studies have shown that fat plays a role in moderating astringency in foods. To investigate the role that polyphenols and fat play in astringency perception, we used modified cocoa powders to produce pseudo-cocoa liquor systems that were rated for taste and flavor attributes on generalized Labeled Magnitude Scales by semi-trained consumers. Our results show significant differences among the cocoa liquors, resulting from acetone–water extraction of free polyphenols and fat content variation. No significant differences resulted from training with oil-based vis-à-vis water-based reference solutions. Practical Applications: Astringency is a prominent sensation commonly experienced by individuals who consume cocoa and chocolate products. It is of the utmost importance to the cocoa and chocolate industry because consumers typically reject products that are highly astringent. Therefore, study of the perception of astringency and the role that polyphenols and fat play would benefit our understanding of these fat-based products. Training with aqueous-based references, which was easier than oil-based references, yielded equivalent results.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article numbere12541
JournalJournal of Sensory Studies
Issue number1
StatePublished - Feb 1 2020

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Food Science
  • Sensory Systems


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