Food environments around American indian reservations: A mixed methods study

Gwen M. Chodur, Ye Shen, Stephen Kodish, Vanessa M. Oddo, Daniel A. Antiporta, Brittany Jock, Jessica C. Jones-Smith

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

19 Scopus citations


Objectives To describe the food environments experienced by American Indians living on tribal lands in California. Methods Geocoded statewide food business data were used to define and categorize existing food vendors into healthy, unhealthy, and intermediate composite categories. Distance to and density of each of the composite food vendor categories for tribal lands and nontribal lands were compared using multivariate linear regression. Quantitative results were concurrently triangulated with qualitative data from in-depth interviews with tribal members (n = 24). Results After adjusting for census tract-level urbanicity and per capita income, results indicate there were significantly fewer healthy food outlets per square mile for tribal areas compared to non-tribal areas. Density of unhealthy outlets was not significantly different for tribal versus non-tribal areas. Tribal members perceived their food environment negatively and reported barriers to the acquisition of healthy food. Conclusions Urbanicity and per capita income do not completely account for disparities in food environments among American Indians tribal lands compared to nontribal lands. This disparity in access to healthy food may present a barrier to acting on the intention to consume healthy food.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article numbere0161132
JournalPloS one
Issue number8
StatePublished - Aug 2016

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • General


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