Freezing-controlled penetration of a saturated liquid into a cold tube

M. Epstein, A. Yim, F. B. Cheung

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

21 Scopus citations


The penetration of a saturated liquid (a liquid at its freezing temperature) into a tube that is initially empty and maintained at a temperature below the freezing temperature of the liquid is treated theoretically and experimentally. A convenient approximate method is introduced which involves postulating a reasonable functional form for the instantaneous shape of the frozen layer along the tube wall. Graphical velocity-time and penetration distance-time curves are presented displaying the principal effects of a single dimensionless parameter. In the limit of negligible liquid inertia, shown to be relevant to high Prandtl number materials, a closed-form expression for the liquid penetration length is obtained. The expression compares well with the experimental results.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)233-238
Number of pages6
JournalJournal of Heat Transfer
Issue number2
StatePublished - May 1977

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • General Materials Science
  • Condensed Matter Physics
  • Mechanics of Materials
  • Mechanical Engineering


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