Functional Law of Large Numbers and PDEs for Epidemic Models with Infection-Age Dependent Infectivity

Guodong Pang, Étienne Pardoux

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Abstract

We study epidemic models where the infectivity of each individual is a random function of the infection age (the elapsed time since infection). To describe the epidemic evolution dynamics, we use a stochastic process that tracks the number of individuals at each time that have been infected for less than or equal to a certain amount of time, together with the aggregate infectivity process. We establish the functional law of large numbers (FLLN) for the stochastic processes that describe the epidemic dynamics. The limits are described by a set of deterministic Volterra-type integral equations, which has a further characterization using PDEs under some regularity conditions. The solutions are characterized with boundary conditions that are given by a system of Volterra equations. We also characterize the equilibrium points for the PDEs in the SIS model with infection-age dependent infectivity. To establish the FLLNs, we employ a useful criterion for weak convergence for the two-parameter processes together with useful representations for the relevant processes via Poisson random measures.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number50
JournalApplied Mathematics and Optimization
Volume87
Issue number3
DOIs
StatePublished - Jun 2023

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Control and Optimization
  • Applied Mathematics

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