Functionality of glycomacropeptide glycated with lactose and maltodextrin

Karen Keel, Federico M. Harte, Julio Berbejillo, Tomás López-Pedemonte

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

2 Scopus citations


The Maillard reaction (MR), under proper environmental conditions, has been used to improve protein functionality. In the present work, 2 high temperatures (50–80°C) and water activity (Aw; 0.45–0.67) were used to promote exogenous glycosylation of glycomacropeptide (GMP) while minimizing processing times (0, 8, 24, 48, and 96 h at 50°C; 0, 2, 4, 8, and 24 h at 80°C). Maltodextrin, a polysaccharide commonly used in the food industry as a functional ingredient, was used as a reducing sugar, and compared with lactose, a native milk sugar. The progression of MR was evaluated by tracking changes in molecular weight using SDS-PAGE, the formation of Amadori compounds, and browning. Aqueous glycosylated GMP solutions (5 to 20% wt/vol) were tested for solubility, rheological properties, and foam formation. As expected, MR progression was faster with Aw = 0.67 and 80°C. Glycosylated GMP powders showed no change in their solubility after MR. However, the apparent viscosity (γ˙=30s-1) of the 20% wt/vol suspensions exhibited a slight increase when GMP was glycosylated with maltodextrin for 24 h at 80°C, and a 2-log increase when GMP was glycosylated with lactose, with a high browning development in both cases. The foam expansion index of the resuspended glycosylated powders was increased by between 25 and 66% compared with the nonglycosylated powders. Better foam stability (approximately 2 h) and no browning development were observed for GMP glycosylated with maltodextrin for 2 h at Aw = 0.67 and 80°C. The results show that GMP has undergone further glycosylation by means of controlled MR, which improves viscosity and foaming index without negatively affecting solubility. These preliminary studies provide a basis for the future creation of a new ingredient with GMP and reducing sugars.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)8664-8676
Number of pages13
JournalJournal of dairy science
Issue number11
StatePublished - Nov 2022

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Food Science
  • Animal Science and Zoology
  • Genetics


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