Currently, industries are placing their focus on fuel cell design and engineering for better performance, improved durability, cost reduction, and better cold-start characteristics. This new focus led to an urgent need for identification, understanding, prediction, control, and optimization of various transport and electrochemical processes that occur on disparate length scales in fuel cells. This review outlines the current status of fundamental models for fuel cell engineering and indicate where the field is leading. Focus is on hydrogen/air polymer electrolyte fuel cells (PEFCs), direct methanol fuel cells (DMFCs, and solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs).
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