Fundamentals of developer-resist interactions for line-edge roughness and critical dimension control in model 248 nm and 157 nm photoresists

Vivek M. Prabhu, Michael X. Wang, Erin L. Jablonski, Bryan Vogt, Eric K. Lin, Wen Li Wu, Darío L. Goldfarb, Marie Angelopoulos, Hiroshi Ito

Research output: Contribution to journalConference articlepeer-review

8 Scopus citations


Organic polar solvent (1-butanol) versus aqueous base (tetramethylammonium hydroxide, (TMAH)) development quality are distinguished by neutral versus charged polymer (polyelectrolyte) dissolution behavior of photoresist bilayers on silicon substrates comprising poly(4-hydroxystyrene) and poly(4-ferf- butoxycarbonyloxystyrene), PHOSt and PBOCSt, respectively. This model line-edge was broadened by photoacid catalyzed deprotection to a final interfacial width of 35.7 Å and subjected to different developers. 1-butanol develops with an increased penetration depth than aqueous base development consistent with an increased solubility of the protected containing component in the organic solvent. This enhanced dissolution with the polar solvent results in an increased surface roughness of 73 Å, whereas the development with TMAH at concentrations between (0.1 to 1.1) M 1 leads to surface roughness between (4.5 to 14.4) Å, as measured by atomic force microscopy. These measurements suggest that the elimination of resist swelling, in the presence of a protection gradient, is a viable strategy to reduce roughness and control critical dimensions. The influence of added salt to developer solutions was also examined by developing the model bilayer. A decrease in surface roughness from (10 to 6.5) Å was observed between (0 to 0.70) M KCl in 0.26 M TMAH.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)443-451
Number of pages9
JournalProceedings of SPIE - The International Society for Optical Engineering
Issue numberPART 1
StatePublished - Aug 18 2004
EventAdvances in Resist Technology and Processing XXI - Santa Clara, CA, United States
Duration: Feb 23 2004Feb 24 2004

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Electronic, Optical and Magnetic Materials
  • Condensed Matter Physics
  • Computer Science Applications
  • Applied Mathematics
  • Electrical and Electronic Engineering


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