Generating electron beam lithography write parameters from the FORTIS holographic grating solution

Mackenzie Carlson, Stephan McCandliss, Randall McEntaffer, Fabien Grise, Nicholas Kruczek, Brian Fleming

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contribution

1 Scopus citations


The Far-UV Off Rowland-circle Telescope for Imaging and Spectroscopy (FORTIS) has been successful in maturing technologies for carrying out multi-object spectroscopy in the far-UV, including: The successful implementation of the Next Generation of Microshutter Arrays; large-Area microchannel plate refetectors; and an aspheric ual-order"holographically ruled diffraction grating with curved, variably-spaced grooves with a laminar (rectangular) profile. These optical elements were used to construct an efficient and minimalist wo-bounce"spectro-Telescope in a Gregorian configuration. However, the susceptibility to Lyman alpha (Ly) scatter inherent to the dual order design has been found to be intractably problematic, motivating our move to an ff-Axis"design. OAxFORTIS will mitigate its susceptibility to Ly by enclosing the optical path, so the detector only receives light from the grating. The new design reduces the collecting area by a factor of 2, but the overall effective area can be regained and improved through the use of new high efficiency reflective coatings, and with the use of a blazed diffraction grating. This latter key technology has been enabled by recent advancements in creating very high efficiency blazed gratings with impressive smoothness using electron beam lithography and chemical etching to create grooves in crystalline silicon. Here we discuss the derivation for the OAxFORTIS grating solution as well as methods used to transform the FORTIS holographic grating recording parameters (following the formalism of Noda et al.1974a,b), into curved and variably-spaced rulings required to drive the electron beam lithography write-head in three dimensions. We will also discuss the process for selecting silicon wafers with the proper orientation of the crystalline planes and give an update on our fabrication preparations.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Title of host publicationUV, X-Ray, and Gamma-Ray Space Instrumentation for Astronomy XXII
EditorsOswald H. Siegmund
ISBN (Electronic)9781510644809
StatePublished - 2021
EventUV, X-Ray, and Gamma-Ray Space Instrumentation for Astronomy XXII 2021 - San Diego, United States
Duration: Aug 1 2021Aug 5 2021

Publication series

NameProceedings of SPIE - The International Society for Optical Engineering
ISSN (Print)0277-786X
ISSN (Electronic)1996-756X


ConferenceUV, X-Ray, and Gamma-Ray Space Instrumentation for Astronomy XXII 2021
Country/TerritoryUnited States
CitySan Diego

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Electronic, Optical and Magnetic Materials
  • Condensed Matter Physics
  • Computer Science Applications
  • Applied Mathematics
  • Electrical and Electronic Engineering


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