Scalar fields which carry charge can generally form non-topological solitons (Q-balls), if the energy in the extended configuration is less than the energy of an equivalent number of free quanta. For global Q-balls, such solitons exist whenever the potential grows slower than quadratically. We show that even in the absence of attractive interactions, finite temperature corrections can generate Q-ball solutions, as the coefficient of cubic corrections is generally negative. As an illustration of this, we consider the possibility of constructing Q-balls using the Higgs field. We first show that the finite temperature corrections would enable the existence of Higgs balls if the Standard Model symmetry was ungauged. We then consider gauged Q-balls, following , and demonstrate that Higgs self-interactions mediated by the Standard Model gauge bosons are sufficient to prevent the existence of these states in the actual Standard Model. However, these states can exist in a variety of extensions, as we show explicitly through an example.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Nuclear and High Energy Physics