Genetic association of cyclic AMP signaling genes with bipolar disorder.

M. L. McDonald, C. MacMullen, D. J. Liu, S. M. Leal, R. L. Davis

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34 Scopus citations


The genetic basis for bipolar disorder (BPD) is complex with the involvement of multiple genes. As it is well established that cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) signaling regulates behavior, we tested variants in 29 genes that encode components of this signaling pathway for associations with BPD type I (BPD I) and BPD type II (BPD II). A total of 1172 individuals with BPD I, 516 individuals with BPD II and 1728 controls were analyzed. Single SNP (single-nucleotide polymorphism), haplotype and SNP × SNP interactions were examined for association with BPD. Several statistically significant single-SNP associations were observed between BPD I and variants in the PDE10A gene and between BPD II and variants in the DISC1 and GNAS genes. Haplotype analysis supported the conclusion that variation in these genes is associated with BPD. We followed-up PDE10A's association with BPD I by sequencing a 23-kb region in 30 subjects homozygous for seven minor allele risk SNPs and discovered eight additional rare variants (minor allele frequency < 1%). These single-nucleotide variants were genotyped in 999 BPD cases and 801 controls. We obtained a significant association for these variants in the combined sample using multiple methods for rare variant analysis. After using newly developed methods to account for potential bias from sequencing BPD cases only, the results remained significant. In addition, SNP × SNP interaction studies suggested that variants in several cAMP signaling pathway genes interact to increase the risk of BPD. This report is among the first to use multiple rare variant analysis methods following common tagSNPs associations with BPD.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)e169
JournalTranslational psychiatry
StatePublished - 2012

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Psychiatry and Mental health
  • Cellular and Molecular Neuroscience
  • Biological Psychiatry


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