Large granular lymphocyte (LGL) leukemia comprises a group of rare lymphoproliferative disorders whose molecular landscape is incompletely defined. We leveraged paired whole-exome and transcriptome sequencing in the largest LGL leukemia cohort to date, which included 105 patients (93 T-cell receptor αβ [TCRαβ] T-LGL and 12 TCRγδ T-LGL). Seventy-six mutations were observed in 3 or more patients in the cohort, and out of those, STAT3, KMT2D, PIK3R1, TTN, EYS, and SULF1 mutations were shared between both subtypes. We identified ARHGAP25, ABCC9, PCDHA11, SULF1, SLC6A15, DDX59, DNMT3A, FAS, KDM6A, KMT2D, PIK3R1, STAT3, STAT5B, TET2, and TNFAIP3 as recurrently mutated putative drivers using an unbiased driver analysis approach leveraging our whole-exome cohort. Hotspot mutations in STAT3, PIK3R1, and FAS were detected, whereas truncating mutations in epigenetic modifying enzymes such as KMT2D and TET2 were observed. Moreover, STAT3 mutations co-occurred with mutations in chromatin and epigenetic modifying genes, especially KMT2D and SETD1B (P <.01 and P <.05, respectively). STAT3 was mutated in 50.5% of the patients. Most common Y640F STAT3 mutation was associated with lower absolute neutrophil count values, and N647I mutation was associated with lower hemoglobin values. Somatic activating mutations (Q160P, D170Y, L287F) in the STAT3 coiled-coil domain were characterized. STAT3-mutant patients exhibited increased mutational burden and enrichment of a mutational signature associated with increased spontaneous deamination of 5-methylcytosine. Finally, gene expression analysis revealed enrichment of interferon-γ signaling and decreased phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase–Akt signaling for STAT3-mutant patients. These findings highlight the clinical and molecular heterogeneity of this rare disorder.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Cell Biology