Organogenesis in plants occurs across all stages of the life cycle. Although previous studies have identified many genes as important for either vegetative or reproductive development at the RNA level, global information on translational and post-translational levels remains limited. In this study, six Arabidopsis stages/organs were analyzed using quantitative proteomics and phosphoproteomics, identifying 2187 non-redundant proteins and evidence for 1194 phosphoproteins. Compared to the expression observed in cauline leaves, the expression of 1445, 1644, and 1377 proteins showed greater than 1.5-fold alterations in stage 1–9 flowers, stage 10–12 flowers, and open flowers, respectively. Among these, 294 phosphoproteins with 472 phosphorylation sites were newly uncovered, including 275 phosphoproteins showing differential expression patterns, providing molecular markers and possible candidates for functional studies. Proteins encoded by genes preferentially expressed in anther (15), meiocyte (4), or pollen (15) were enriched in reproductive organs, and mutants of two anther-preferentially expressed proteins, acos5 and mee48, showed obviously reduced male fertility with abnormally organized pollen exine. In addition, more phosphorylated proteins were identified in reproductive stages (1149) than in the vegetative organs (995). The floral organ-preferential phosphorylation of GRP17, CDC2/CDKA.1, and ATSK11 was confirmed with western blot analysis. Moreover, phosphorylation levels of CDPK6 and MAPK6 and their interacting proteins were elevated in reproductive tissues. Overall, our study yielded extensive data on protein expression and phosphorylation at six stages/organs and provides an important resource for future studies investigating the regulatory mechanisms governing plant development.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Molecular Biology
- Computer Science Applications
- Physical and Theoretical Chemistry
- Organic Chemistry
- Inorganic Chemistry