Global-scale temperature patterns and climate forcing over the past six centuries

Michael E. Mann, Raymond S. Bradley, Malcolm K. Hughes

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

1431 Scopus citations


Spatially resolved global reconstructions of annual surface temperature patterns over the past six centuries are based on the multivariate calibration of widely distributed high-resolution proxy climate indicators. Time-dependent correlations of the reconstructions with time-series records representing changes in greenhouse-gas concentrations, solar irradiance, and volcanic aerosols suggest that each of these factors has contributed to the climate variability of the past 400 years, with greenhouse gases emerging as the dominant forcing during the twentieth century. Northern Hemisphere mean annual temperatures for three of the past eight years are warmer than any other year since (at least) AD 1400.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)779-787
Number of pages9
Issue number6678
StatePublished - Apr 23 1998

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • General


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