Global surface temperatures over the past two millennia

Michael E. Mann, Philip D. Jones

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

632 Scopus citations


We present reconstructions of Northern and Southern Hemisphere mean surface temperature over the past two millennia based on high-resolution 'proxy' temperature data which retain millennial-scale variability. These reconstructions indicate that late 20th century warmth is unprecedented for at least roughly the past two millennia for the Northern Hemisphere. Conclusions for the Southern Hemisphere and global mean temperature are limited by the sparseness of available proxy data in the Southern Hemisphere at present.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)CLM 5-1 - 5-4
JournalGeophysical Research Letters
Issue number15
StatePublished - Aug 1 2003

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Geophysics
  • General Earth and Planetary Sciences


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