Golf cart injuries in children: The experience of trauma centers in a single state in the USA

Mariano Garay, Jeremy Silver, Alan W. Reynolds, Joseph Hess, Douglas Armstrong, William Hennrikus

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

2 Scopus citations


Golf carts remain a source of morbidity in children. We aimed to establish the incidence and injury characteristics of pediatric patients injured due to golf cart usage over an 11-year period. This is a retrospective study using a single state trauma database of patients ages 0–17 years admitted to a trauma center and who sustained injures while a golf cart was in use. Thirteen Pediatric and Adult Trauma Centers within the state of Pennsylvania were evaluated from 1 January 2004 to 31 December 2014. The inclusion criteria were met by 108 patients. The mean annual incidence of injuries was 0.35/100000. The median age of patients was 11years. The median hospital length of stay and injury severity score were 2days and 9.5, respectively. The majority of the patients (75.9%) sustained at least one bone fracture. Skull fractures were more prevalent (43.5%), whereas extremity fractures were sustained by 26.9% of patients. Intracranial hemorrhages were sustained by 29.6% of patients. Ejections and rollovers accounted for 58.3% and 31.4% of patient injuries, respectively. The concussion rate was 26.9%. Neither age group nor sex was associated with a difference in fractures, intracranial hemorrhage or concussions. Golf cart injuries in pediatric patients commonly stem from ejections and rollover mechanisms resulting in skull fractures, extremity fractures, intracranial hemorrhages and concussions. The overall incidence of injury was 0.35 cases per 100000. Further efforts are needed to increase awareness of these injuries and modify regulations regarding the use of golf carts in the pediatric population.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)E44-E48
JournalJournal of Pediatric Orthopaedics Part B
Issue number1
StatePublished - Jan 1 2022

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Pediatrics, Perinatology, and Child Health
  • Orthopedics and Sports Medicine


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