Grounded practice and the design of constructivist learning environments

Michael J. Hannafin, Kathleen M. Hannafin, Susan M. Land, Kevin Oliver

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

120 Scopus citations


A variety of instructional approaches has been studied and implemented across educational and training settings. Vastly different design practices have been proposed that reflect fundamentally different philosophies, beliefs, and biases. Yet, evidence of mismatched frameworks and methods are widespread. This has become particularly problematic in advancing emerging constructivist learning environments. In this paper, we advance the concept of grounded design, a process that involves linking the practices of learning systems design with related theory and research. The purposes of this paper are to introduce the fundamentals of grounded design, to describe how underlying foundations and assumptions can be aligned with the corresponding methods, and to introduce examples of grounded constructivist learning environments.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)101-117
Number of pages17
JournalEducational Technology Research and Development
Issue number3
StatePublished - 1997

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Education


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