By controlling the opening and closure of the stomatal pores through which gas exchange occurs, guard cells regulate two of the most important plant physiological processes: photosynthesis and transpiration. Accordingly, guard cells have evolved exquisite sensory systems. Here we summarize recent literature on guard cell sensing of light, drought (via the phytohormone abscisic acid (ABA)), and CO2. New advances in our understanding of how guard cells satisfy the energetic and osmotic requirements of stomatal opening and utilize phosphorylation to regulate the anion channels and aquaporins involved in ABA-stimulated stomatal closure are highlighted. Omics and modeling approaches are providing new information that will ultimately allow an integrated understanding of guard cell physiology.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Plant Science