Hate crimes in Pennsylvania, 1984-99: Case characteristics and police responses

Mindy S. Wilson, R. Barry Ruback

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

22 Scopus citations


To gain a better understanding of factors related to the occurrence and processing of hate crimes, we examined 2,031 hate-crime incidents reported to the Pennsylvania Human Relations Commission from 1984 to 1998. The results of multilevel random coefficient analyses indicated that the frequency and severity of hate incidents, as well as police involvement in response to hate crimes, were significantly related to individual-and community-level influences. Furthermore, some characteristics of victims, offenders, and offenses were significant predictors of local police involvement, the composition of a county's population moderated the processing of hate crimes. Implications for reporting, policy, and future research on hate crimes are discussed.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)373-398
Number of pages26
JournalJustice Quarterly
Issue number2
StatePublished - 2003

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Pathology and Forensic Medicine
  • Law


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