Purpose: To evaluate the ability of hemostatic agents (HA) to limit bleeding complications following partial nephrectomy (PN) and determine HA usage and costs as well as factors associated with post-operative bleeding complications. Methods: The records of 429 PN performed for kidney cancers were reviewed for clinical, pathologic, and perioperative variables. Surgical approach, HA use, and HA expenditure were determined. Bleeding complications and management to 90 days after PN were annotated. Wilcoxon rank-sum and two-sample t tests identified factors associated with HA use. Univariate and limited multivariate logistic regression determined variables associated with bleeding complications. Results: Use of HA was associated with longer OR duration, longer ischemia time, higher EBL, and method of PN (OPN and LPN > RPN) (all p values < 0.001). On bivariate analysis, while multiple factors were associated with bleeding complications, neither HA use (p = 0.924) nor the number of HA used (two agents vs one p = 0.712; three agents vs. one p = 0.606) were. A multivariable model noted that increasing RENAL score (p = 0.013) and surgical approach (OPN vs. RPN [p = 0.009] and LPN vs. RPN (p = 0.002]) were independently associated with bleeding complications, while HA use was not (p = 0.294). During the 16 years of analysis, a total of $77,687 USD was spent on HA. Average annual HA expenditure was $4855 USD with the peak being in 2010 where expense was $14,086. Mean annual costs for HA use were greater for OPN vs RAPN starting in 2013 (p = 0.02) Conclusions: The use of HA during PN was not associated with lower rates of bleeding complications. Therefore, judicious use in a case-specific manner is requisite to limit potentially unnecessary operative cost.
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