High-density low-loss millimeter-wave package interconnects with the impact of dielectric-material surface roughness

Atom O. Watanabe, Kimiyuki Kanno, Hirokazu Ito, Rao R. Tummala, Madhavan Swaminathan

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

9 Scopus citations


Heterogeneous package integration and chiplet approaches are the key technology to enable next-generation high performance small form-factor packages for emerging applications. Millimeter-wave packaging for fifth-generation and upcoming sixth-generation platforms also need to meet the high-density low signal-loss interconnect specifications utilizing advanced conductor and dielectric materials. This article presents the comparison of the liquid-based photoimageable dielectric (PID) and dry-film dielectric materials in terms of interconnect path losses that are critical in mm-wave frequency bands. The conductor loss being more dominant in the frequency bands and in thinner dielectric structures, we assess daisy chains and microstrip lines on 15-μm dielectric by measuring the S-parameters to quantify the impact of the surface roughness at around 28GHz. Measured results from the daisy chain and microstrip line structures exhibit that the smooth surface of the liquid-based PID (3nm) leads to 8%-32% lower signal loss in the dB scale than the 325-nm rough dry-film dielectric. The study provides comprehensive experimental results that the different material forms with various surface roughness largely impact the package-level interconnect loss.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number134103
JournalApplied Physics Letters
Issue number13
StatePublished - Sep 27 2021

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Physics and Astronomy (miscellaneous)


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